Clinical Topics - Transfusion Guidelines

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Comparative Coagulation


Clinical Topics - Transfusion Guidelines

Product
Volume
Frequency
Indications
Fresh whole blood
12 to 20 ml/kg
q. 24 h
anemia, platelet & factor replacement
Packed red cells
6 to 10 ml/kg
q. 12 to 24 h
anemia
Platelet rich plasma
6 to 10 ml/kg
q. 8 to 12 h
platelet dysfunction, thrombocytopenia
Fresh and fresh frozen plasma
6 to 12 ml/kg
q. 8 to 12 h
coagulation factor deficiencies, vWD, DIC, hypoproteinemia
Frozen plasma
6 to 12 ml/kg
q. 8 to 12 h
hypoproteinemia
Plasma cryoprecipitatea
1 unit/10 kg
q. 4 to 12 h
(as needed)
hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency)
fibrinogen deficiency
von Willebrand disease
Cryosupernatant
6 to 12 ml/kg
q. 8 to 12 h
hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)
factor VII, X, or XI deficiency
vitamin K deficiency, hypoproteinemia

a1 unit = cryoprecipitate produced from 200 ml of fresh frozen plasma

 

Transfusion Rate:

  • Start all transfusions at 1 to 2 ml/minute
  • Adult dogs: maximum rate of 3 to 6 ml/minute
  • Cats, kittens, puppies: maximum rate of 1 to 2 ml/minute

Component Processing and Storage:

  • Fresh whole blood
    • Transfuse within 4 to 6 hour of collection.
  • Fresh plasma
    • Centrifuged to separate plasma from whole blood, transfuse within 4 to 6 hr. of collection.
  • Fresh frozen plasma
    • Collect in citrate anticoagulant, separate plasma from whole blood within 4 to 6 hr. of collection, store frozen for up to 1 year.
  • Platelet rich plasma
    • Collect in citrate anticoagulant, separate platelet rich plasma from whole blood within 4 to 6 hr. of collection, process and store at room temperature, transfuse within 48 hr. of collection.
  • Packed Red Cells:
    • Collect in citrate anticoagulant, separate from whole blood within 4 to 6 hr. of collection, combine packed cells with additives for sustained red cell viability, store under refrigeration (4 to 8 C) for up to 4 weeks.
  • Plasma Cryoprecipitate
    • Prepared from fresh frozen plasma, store frozen for up to 1 year, unit size varies, check with each supplier for dosage.
  • Cryosupernatant
    • Prepared from fresh frozen plasma, store frozen for up to 1 year.

Veterinary Blood Banks:

  • Sources of blood components include regional blood banks and blood banking programs associated with veterinary schools. There are currently four national commercial blood banks:
    • Animal Blood Bank: (800) 243-5759
    • Eastern Veterinary Blood Bank: (800) 949-3822
    • Hemopet: (949)-891-2022
    • Midwest Animal Blood Services: (517) 851-8244

Prices and availability vary. Remember, there are no uniform standards or federal regulations for animal blood products. You should discuss details of dosage and quality control practices with each supplier.