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Clinical Pathology

Urinalysis Testing

Urinalysis is an essential test for evaluating kidney function. Whenever blood is collected for a chemistry profile, a urine sample should be obtained whenever possible (especially on the initial sampling). Changes in renal parameters cannot be interpreted without knowledge of the urine results. For example, a high BUN and creatinine (azotemia) in a dehydrated patient with a concentrated urine (urine specific gravity > 1.030 in a dog) is compatible with a pre-renal azotemia, whereas azotemia in a dehydrated dog with a USG of 1.010 indicates a renal azotemia. Urine should be collected into sterile glass red-top containers for all our tests. Plastic tubes should be avoided, because we have found that they often contain microscopic crystalline material that can interfere with the urine sediment exam.

We offer routine urinalysis, protein:creatinine ratios, and certain individual urine chemistry tests. Fractional excretion of electrolytes can be calculated by measuring the concentration of electrolytes and creatinine in serum and urine. Urinary excretion of electrolytes and certain enzymes, e.g. GGT, can indicate renal disease, e.g. Fanconi's syndrome and aminoglycoside toxicity (urinary GGT).

To view our reports for certain tests below and to obtain more information about the individual components of each test, click on the highlighted test name below.

For more information on urinalysis, please refer to Routine Urinalysis and Urine Sediment.

Test Components Specimen Requirements Comments
Routine urinalysis Color, turbidity, dipstick (pH, TP, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood), specific gravity, sediment exam. 10 ml fresh urine Indicate method of collection.

Ictotest done if dipstick bilirubin positive. Acetest done if dipstick ketones positive.

No additional charge for Acetest and/or Ictotest.

Dipstick only pH, TP, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood. 2 ml fresh urine see above
Sediment only 10 ml fresh urine Indicate method of collection.
Calcium 1 ml fresh urine
Chloride 1 ml fresh urine
Creatinine 1 ml fresh urine
Osmolality 1 ml fresh urine
Phosphate 1 ml fresh urine

1 ml fresh urine

Protein, quantitative 3 ml fresh urine
Sodium 1 ml fresh urine
Urea nitrogen 1 ml fresh urine
Protein:Creatinine Panel Total protein, creatinine, P:C ratio (calc). 4 ml fresh urine
Uric Acid Fresh urine, entire sample preferable. If submitting partial sample, ensure a well-mixed aliquot is submitted.