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Clinical Pathology


Immunology Reference Intervals

We have established reference intervals for agarose gel electrophoresis and for immunoglobulin values in dogs and cats using the equipment and reagents in our laboratory. Other reference intervals provided with our reports have been provided by the manufacturer of the kits we use for these tests.

Agarose Gel Reference Intervals

These reference intervals were established using our Helena-REP agarose gel electrophoresis equipment.

Test Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca
Albumin g/dL 2.2 - 3.3 2.4 - 3.8 2.3 - 3.5 2.6 - 3.9 2.9 - 4.0
Total a1 g/dL 0.1 - 0.3 0.6 - 1.4 0.3 - 0.8 0.3 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.5
Total a2 g/dL 1.0 - 1.6 0.8 - 1.6 0.7 - 1.3 0.8 - 1.3 0.3 - 0.7
Total a g/dL 1.1 - 1.8 1.6 - 2.4 1.2 - 1.7 1.2 - 1.6 0.5 - 1.1
Total b1 g/dL 0.3 - 1.0 0.3 - 0.6 0.2 - 1.1 0.6 - 1.0 0.4 - 1.0
Total b2 g/dL 0.2 - 1.0 0.1 - 0.5 0.3 - 0.8 0.5 - 0.9 0.2 - 0.6
Total b g/dL 0.8 - 1.8 0.4 - 1.0 0.7 - 1.6 1.2 - 1.8 0.9 - 1.6
g g/dL 0.3 - 1.1 0.6 - 2.2 0.7 - 1.8 1.1 - 2.7 0.5 - 1.6
Total globulin g/dL 2.6 - 4.2 3.4 - 5.1 2.8 - 4.7 3.8 - 5.7 -
A:G - 0.5 - 1.1 0.5 - 1.2 0.6 - 1.1 0.5 - 1.0 0.8 - 1.8

 

Immunoglobulin Reference Intervals

These reference intervals were established in our laboratory using radial immunodiffusion kits obtained from Bethyl laboratories. Because kits from different manufacturers do not provide identical results (due to the use of different standards), our results cannot be directly compared to that from other laboratories. These ranges are only valid for dogs and cats > 1 year of age. Animals younger than this may very well have values below the reference intervals.

Please note that for canine IgA, when the reference interval was established, the lowest IgA standard provided by the kit was 35 mg/dL. Therefore, the lowest reportable value for IgA was 35 mg/dL. The lowest IgA standard with the kit has now changed to 33 mg/dL. Therefore, when we report IgA values of 33 mg/dL, they should be regarded as being equivalent to 35 mg/dL and are not compatible with IgA deficiency.

Test Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine
IgG mg/dL 670 - 1650 530 - 2000 984 - 1685 1700 - 2700
IgM mg/dL 100 - 400 75 - 260 90 - 150 -
IgA mg/dL 35 -270 25 - 200 67 - 239 -