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Clinical Pathology


Chemistry (Cobas) Reference Intervals

The following reference intervals have been established for the Cobas 501 chemistry analyzer in the Clinical Pathology Laboratory at Cornell University. These intervals were derived for serum samples only. The reference intervals for certain analytes are different in heparinized plasma compared to serum (notably potassium, total protein and globulins), but this is species-dependent.

Analyte Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Caprine* Alpaca*
Sodium mEq/L 143-150 149-158 134-142 134-144 143-154 149-156
Potassium mEq/L 4.1-5.4 3.8-5.5 2.4-4.8 4.0-5.9 4.2-6 4.2-5.9
Chloride mEq/L 106-114 111-124 95-104 92-99 101-116 105-116
Bicarbonate mEq/L 14-24 14-20 24-31 22-30 16-26 20-32
Anion Gap mEq/L 17-27 18-29 12-19 19-26 19-27 16-22
Urea nitrogen mg/dL 9-26 17-35 10-22 7-19 10-35 11-30
Creatinine mg/dL 0.6-1.4 0.8-2.1 0.8-1.5 0.4-0.9 0.3-0.8 1-2.3
Calcium mg/dL 9.4-11.1 9.0-11.3 10.8-12.9 8.9-10.9 8.3-10.3 8.1-9.9
Phosphate mg/dL 2.7-5.4 2.6-5.5 2.1-4.7 4.1-7.3 4.5-7.8 3.3-7.7
Magnesium mg/dL 1.5-2.1 1.7-2.2 1.2-1.9 1.6-2.5 1.5-2.2 1.7-2.5
Total protein g/dL 5.5-7.2 6.6-8.4 5.4-7.0 6.7-8.8 6.2-8 5.6-7.0
Albumin g/dL 3.2-4.1 3.2-4.3 2.9-3.6 3.3-4.3 2.9-4.0 2.8-4.2
Globulin g/dL 1.9-3.7 2.9-4.7 2.3-3.8 2.8-5.4 3.0-4.7 2.1-3.1
A/G ratio   0.9-1.9 0.8-1.5 0.8-1.5 0.6-1.6 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0
Glucose mg/dL 68-104 71-182 71-122 57-79 35-142 99-146
ALT U/L 17-95 28-109        
AST U/L 18-56 17-48 222-489 54-135 62-145 119-285
SDH U/L 3-13 1-11 1-6 8-48 24-63 0-6
GLDH U/L 1-20 0-12 2-10 14-141   4-19
LDH U/L 24-388 71-406 218-555 725-1122   116-443
ALP U/L 7-115 11-49 88-261 27-127   17-111
GGT U/L 2-8 0-2 8-33 17-54 24-64 9-35
Total bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.1 0.5-2.1 0-0.1 0-0.1 0-0.1
Direct bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.1 0-0 0.1-0.3 0-0 0-0 0-0
Indirect bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.3-2.0 0-0.1 0-0.1 0-0.1
Cholesterol mg/dL 136-392 101-323 68-133 163-397   46-117
Triglycerides mg/dL 23-102 30-106 14-65 10-19   9-53
Amylase U/L 322-1310 603-2183 3-8 14-50   824-1686
Lipase DGGR U/L 15-228 7-23 7-16 5-13    
CK U/L 64-314 74-386 171-567 88-292 116-464 35-132
Iron µg/dL 97-263 59-169 95-217 64-224 102-194 86-203
TIBC µg/dL 280-489 222-423 289-535 320-490 266-408 245-441
%Sat % 27-66 20-56 27-56 18-54 30-59 28-59
Bile Acids** mg/dL     2-10 22-247    
NEFA mEq/L 0.13-1.25 0.15-1.05 0.02-0.43 0.07-0.46   0.02-0.27
BHB mg/dL 0-1 0-1.0 1.0-3.1 2.3-10    
Fructosamine umol/L 266-381 219-365 284-387      
Uric acid mg/dL 0.1-0.4 0-0.3        
Ionized calcium mmol/L 1.16-1.48   1.44-1.74 1.1-1.32    
Cholinesterase U/L 3164-8164 1540-4055 4382-9851 119-239    
SAA ug/mL     0-8      
C-reactive protein ug/mL 0-12          

* Based on correlations between new and old instruments, ** A standard comment will be provided versus reference intervals.