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Clinical Pathology


Chemistry (Mod P) Reference Intervals

The following reference intervals have been established for the Mod P in the Clinical Pathology Laboratory at Cornell University. These ranges are valid for adult animals of the 6 species listed for serum samples only. The reference intervals for certain analytes are different in plasma compared to serum. This is species-dependent.

NOTE: Based on correlations performed before and after the new set point used to calibrate sodium and potassium was instituted, we have modified our reference intervals for sodium, potassium and anion gap in all species. Note that this change in procedure has increased both the upper and lower limits of the reference intervals for these electrolytes. This change will be reflected in reports as of October 16, 2014.

Analyte Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Sodium mEq/L 145-153 151-158 136-145 138-147 149-157 143-156
Potassium mEq/L 4.1-5.6 4.0 - 5.9 2.6-4.5 3.8-5.2 4.2-5.9 4.2-6.0
Chloride mEq/L 105-116 113-123 96-105 92-102 106-116 102-116
Bicarbonate mEq/L 15-25 15-24 25-32 24-32 22-34 17-27
Anion Gap mEq/L 17-27 18-25 11-17 18-24 14-21 17-29
Glucose mg/dL 63-118 64-144 71-113 53-76 102-149 37-141
BUN mg/dL 10-32 16-36 11-28 7-18 10-30 9-35
Creatinine mg/dL 0.6-1.4 0.6-2.0 0.6-1.6 0.5-0.9 1.0-2.4 0.4-0.9
Uric Acid mg/dL 0.1-0.3 0-0.5 0.1-0.4 0.7-2.1 NA NA
Total Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.5-2.5 0.1-0.2 0-0.1 0.1-0.2
Direct Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.3 0-0.1 0 - 0 0.0-0.1
Indirect Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.3-2.3 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.2
Alk Phos U/L 17-111 13-83 68-260 29-111 18-113 38-862
gamma GT U/L 0-6 0-2 8-29 9-50 8-35 24-66
ALT/ P5P U/L 20-98 35-176 NA NA NA NA
AST/ P5P U/L 14-51 15-44 199-374 61-162 119-286 60-147
SDH U/L 0-8 0-10 0-11 12-50 0-7 26-76
GLDH U/L 2-11 0-4 1-8 11-83 3-19 NA
CK U/L 48-261 73-388 142-548 76-376 29-120 113-446
LDH U/L 30-236 57-451 160-453 699-1381 99-433 221-403
Total Protein g/dL 5.3-7.0 6.3-8.3 5.7-7.7 6.9-8.6 5.7-7.2 6.2-8.0
Albumin g/dL 3.1-4.2 2.8-4.2 3.0-3.7 3.1-4.1 2.9-4.3 3.0-4.0
Globulin g/dL 1.9-3.6 2.7-4.9 2.4-4.4 3.1-5.4 2.1-3.1 3.0-4.6
A/G - 0.9-2.1 0.6-1.6 0.8-1.4 0.6-1.3 1.0-1.9 0.7-1.2
Calcium mg/dL 9.3-11.4 9.1-10.9 10.9-12.8 8.9-10.9 8.2-10.1 8.5-10.6
Phosphate mg/dL 2.9-5.2 2.7-6.2 2.1-4.2 4.6-7.3 3.4-7.8 4.5-7.9
Magnesium mg/dL 1.4-2.2 1.6-2.3 1.3-2.3 1.6-2.4 1.7-2.4 1.5-2.2
Cholesterol mg/dL 138-332 66-317 69-130 128-333 17-88 51-126
Triglycerides mg/dL 22-125 25-133 14-77 5-19 6-50 15-57
Amylase U/L 377-1220 532-2008 NA NA 732-1602 11-73
Lipase-DCL U/L 78-765 5-222 12-39 1-35 9-173 NA
Iron µg/dL 78-214 53-145 75-206 83-205 82-194 98-187
TIBC µg/dL 270-496 226-432 284-456 335-499 228-411 249-386
Saturation % 23-61 15-49 24-55 20-51 29-60 31-62
Bile Acids (fast/random) µmol/L 0-13 0-13 0-12 16-151 5-54 NA
Bile Acids (postprandial) µmol/L 0-30 0-25 NA NA NA NA
Cholinesterase U/L 1895-5240 736-3016 2684-5889 53-126 242-603 NA
BHB mg/dL 0-1 0-2 2-5 NA 0-1 NA
NEFA mEq/L 0.1-1.2 0.13-1.32 0.01-0.12 NA 0.02-0.26 NA
Fructosamine Umol/L 222-348 174-294 235-332 NA 251-431 NA