Animal Health Diagnostic Center

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Clinical Pathology


Venous Blood Gas and Electrolyte Reference Intervals

These reference ranges were established in our laboratory using the radiometer ABL-600 and are only valid for this instrumentation using heparinized venous blood samples that are maintained anaerobically (in a capped syringe or green top tube).

Analyte Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
pH* 7.31 - 7.46 7.21 - 7.41 7.36 - 7.43 7.36 - 7.46 - -
pCO2* 27 - 50 28 - 50 - - - -
pO2** - - - - - -
HCO3 17 - 28 16 - 23 26 - 32 24 - 34 - -
TCO2 18 - 29 17 - 24 27 - 33 25 - 35 - -
SBE -7 to 2.9 -8.5 to -1.5 1.1 to 7.1 0.7 to +7.6 - -
Na 145 - 151 149 - 157 136 - 142 137 - 143 - -
K 3.9 - 5.1 3.3 - 4.5 2.2 - 4.6 3.2 - 4.7 - -
Cl 110 - 119 117 - 127 98 - 104 93 - 105 - -
AG 11 - 20 13 - 20 9 - 16 14 - 21 - -
Ionized Calcium (R800) 1.16 - 1.40 1.11 - 1.38 1.40 - 1.72 1.16 - 1.33 1.03-1.32 -

* Same values for both venous and arterial blood.
** pO2 arterial = 80 to 100 mmHg